Our work at Clear Water Services is informed not only by our own experiences and research, but by countless studies on water treatment technology as well. The advantages of Chitosan-Enhanced Sand Filtration (CESF) over traditional methods have been well-documented in the literature. Below, we've compiled a brief list of publications which are freely available. We hope you can see for yourself why CESF has become the preferred stormwater treatment technology for so many localities and applications.
Contact us to learn more about our treatment systems' performance. We have data for a large range of contaminants of interest, from metals to PCBs, and for different combinations of treatment technologies and applications.
For other materials such as state-provided handbooks and permits, see our Resources Page.
Li, Q. & Kegley, L.(2004). Chitosan: Its Formation, Properties, and Applications. Oregon Department of Transportation State Planning and Research Project Number 615. Li and Kegley present a thorough literature review on chitosan with a focus on its uses in construction stormwater runoff.
R. Fabris et al. (2010). Evaluation of chitosan as a natural coagulant for drinking water treatment. Water Science & Technology, 61(8) 2119-2128. DOI: 10.2166/wst.2010.83 This study finds that chitosan is "very effective for particle removal at doses far below those required for equivalent turbidity removal by inorganic coagulants."
Matilainen, A., Vepsäläinen, M., & Sillanpää, M. (2010). Natural organic matter removal by coagulation during drinking water treatment: a review. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 159. 189-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2010.06.007. This review includes a useful table summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of different coagulants and flocculants as they relate to the reduction of natural organic matter in drinking water. Clear Water uses several of the chemicals reviewed in this paper when conducting treatability testing for new projects.
Huang, X. et al. (2013). Coagulation Properties of Biodegradable Chitosan-CTA Coagulants in Turbidity Removal. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 139. 1123-1127. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000709. Huang et al find that low doses of cationic chitosan, at 0.05 mg/L, can achieve turbidity removal efficiency of 93.3% in both laboratory and pilot scale studies.
Lee, J. et al. (2013). Treatment of Tunnel Construction Wastewater Using Chitosan Coagulant. Journal of Water and Environment Technology, 11(13), 187-195. DOI: 10.2965/jwet.2013.18 This study focuses on tunnel excavation on construction sites and finds that chitosan at 5 mg/L reduces the typical turbidity of tunneling wastewater by 98%.
Zemmouri, H. et al. (2013). Chitosan Application for Treatment of Beni-Amrane's Water Dam. Energy Procedia, 36, 558-564. DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2013.07.064 Coagulation/ flocculation of raw water with high turbidity was tested with chitosan and aluminum sulfate. The study finds that the properties of chitosan make it "...the best substitute to conventional synthetic polyelectrolytes used so far."